In Part 3 of our tutorial series, we reproduced the hieroglyphs found in Amenemhet’s cartouche, went through a few different steps to help you search for unknown hieroglyphs (another method is using the Aaou Dictionary App!), but we did not organize the hieroglyphs into their proper arrangement.
In this part of the tutorial, I will expand on Part 3 by showing you two different methods for arranging individual hieroglyphs in JSesh, using symbols and the Edit Group function.
For the beginner, the basic commands will fulfill all your arrangement needs.
There are only 4 symbols you need to know, each serving a separate grouping function. Below is a list of the symbols and their respective function.
: – Places the glyph below the previous glyph or glyph group.
* – Groups glyphs side-by-side
& – Groups glyphs together in the most appropriate blank space around a glyph.
( ) – Glyphs in parentheses can be arranged as one entity.
Lets see how these symbols in action by using the Manuel de Codage we created in the Part 3.
Copy & paste i-mn-n-m-HAt-t into JSesh. The result will be all of the glyphs in the cartouche, but not in the proper arrangement.
Step 1: Arrange the glyphs in the proper direction.
As we can see from the image, the glyphs are arranged vertically and read from right to left. So, we need to change how the glyphs are arranged in JSesh. to do this, we need to highlight the glyphs in the JSesh window, then click:
File > Format > Text in Columns
File > Format > Right-to-Left Text
The glyphs should now be arranged vertically and read from right to left.
Step 2: Reproduce the arrangement.
The only glyphs that need to be grouped are the mn glyph and the n glyph. Now, since mn and n need to be placed beside the reed leaf, i, they need to be placed within parentheses. If they are not placed within them, then only the mn glyph will be placed next to the i.
So, the Manuel de Codage should now read as i-(mn-n)-m-HAt-t.
Now, the group, (mn-n), needs to be placed beside the reed leaf. Since the glyphs are now vertically arranged, the “-” symbol cannot be used, or it will simply place the glyphs below the reed leaf. Instead, the “*” or “&” must be used. Which one you use depends on the result you would like, so try out both in order to see which result you like the best.
The resulting Manuel de Codage is i*(mn-n)-m-HAt-t. It’s not quite there. We just need to use the “:” in between the mn and n in order to place the n below the mn.
The Manuel de Codage should then be i*(mn:n)-m-HAt-t, which mimics the cartouche but without the cartouche being present
The last step is now to enclose the glyphs in a cartouche. To do this, highlight the group again, then click:
Group Manipulation> Cartouches, then pick the cartouche in which you would like to enclose the glyphs. In this case, we will pick the first one.
You now have successfully arranged the hieroglyphs in Amenemhat’s cartouche.
If the above method is not cutting it, you can also edit the hieroglyphs manually. To do this, simply highlight whichever glyphs are causing trouble, then click:
Group Manipulation> Edit Group
This will open up a window that will allow you to resize, move, and rotate the hieroglyphs.
This will be the conclusion to the JSesh Tutorial series. The software is incredibly versatile, and I have only tapped the surface of it in this series. I feel this 4 part series will be sufficient for a beginner who simply just wants to learn the basics of JSesh.
In the future, I may create a more advanced tutorial. For now, I hope you have enjoyed this series and have learned a little bit about JSesh.